Life Science Journal of Pakistan <p align="justify">Life Science Journal of Pakistan (LSJP) is an open access peer review journal which is published bi-monthly. The journal publishes original articles, review articles, letters to editors, case reports or short communications technical notes and perspectives.&nbsp;LSJP&nbsp;provides immediate open access to its content so&nbsp;that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge which is essential to promote research in life science.&nbsp;Life Science Journal of Pakistan (LSJP) publishes contents related to biology of living things. It may include subjects from biochemistry, microbiology, zoology, plant science, agriculture science, biotechnology, molecular biology, medical sciences, epidemiology and food science.&nbsp;</p> Biology Publishers en-US Life Science Journal of Pakistan 2707-6687 Correlation of blaNDM to Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates from Tertiary Care Hospital in Lahore, Pakistan <p>This study was conducted to evaluate the antibiotic susceptibility of <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> isolated from different clinical samples collected at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 50 isolates were included in this study and 28 different antibiotics were used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of isolates. The pure colonies of <em>K. pneumoniae </em>were isolated by conventional method of bacterial identification and then the pure bacterial growths were tested for antibiotic susceptibility against different antibiotics. PCR amplification was performed to identify three virulent genes; <em>Klebsiella</em><em> pneumoniae</em> Carbapenamase (KPC), Metallo-β-lactamases (NDM), Imipenamase (IMP) followed by sequencing analysis. The <em>K. pneumoniae </em>isolates were found highly resistant to Ampicillin by 56% and Amoxicillin, Cefepime, Cefixime, Cefaclor, and Cefuroxime by 54%. The isolates were highly sensitive to Colistin (100%), Amikacin (14%), Imipenem and Meropenem (18%). The prevalence of antibiotic resistance was found more in female patients as compared to males. The prevalence of NDM gene was 22% while we were unable to detect KPC and IMP in these isolates. In the present study, a prominent correlation was found between the presence of NDM gene and antibiotic resistance as this gene was found positive only in MDR strains. The co-existence of multiple drug resistance and the NDM gene is an alarming situation and demand more research to determine possible mechanism of co-existence between blaNDM and antibiotic resistance.</p> Pakeeza Munir Bhatti Basit Zeshan Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem Maida Qureshi Sadaf Riaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-24 2019-09-24 1 2 03 09 Matricaria Chamomile Protective Effect Against Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cancer Cell Linings <p><em>Matricaria Chamomilla</em> is one of the most popular old times herbal medicine which is known to mankind. This plant is a member of the Asteraceae family and is named by two common species, German and Roman kind. The dried flowers and extracts of chamomile plant contain many terpenoids and&nbsp;flavonoids including luteoline and epigenin which plays a vital role in protective effects against chronic diseases including Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus and Breast Cancer. Recent reports of 2015 have shown that prevalence of these two diseases has increased death rate globally as well as in Pakistan. Chamomile tea and other extracts containing its bioactive components (luteolin and epigenin) are used in many experimental studies for investigating their effect against diabetes and cancer cells. This review on inhibitory effects of chamomile plant in diabetes and cancer includes many latest researches, in which studies investigated human cells and rat cells. Subjects in the form of groups or individuals were given chamomile extracts to observe the effect on glycemic index in diabetes and induced apoptosis of cancer cells. It was viewed that chamomile extracts showed remarkable effect on glycemic index and induced apoptosis to inhibit cancer cells growth. These all studies were conducted in past 4 years and have detailed beneficial effects of chamomile as a herbal medicine. In this review chamomile’s origin, nutritional content, herbal properties and latest researches over inhibitory effects on diabetes and cancer cell growth are being highlighted.</p> Shahnai Basharat Syed Amir Gilani Faiza Iftikhar Muhammad Mustafa Qamar Mian Anjum Murtaza Sanabil Anmol Amna Imtiaz Sammana Ghazanfer Ameer Hamza Affifa Rajpoot ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-24 2019-09-24 1 2 24 32 Applications and perspectives of chitosan as functional biopolymer; an extended review <p>Chitosan, a deacetylated derivative of chitin, has gained high importance for its nontoxicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability and antioxidant properties. The main objective of this review is to explore various applications of chitosan in different fields of life. It is used in food preservatives or coating material in natural origin due to its antimicrobial activity and film forming prpoerties. Chitosan-based coatings are made up by the combination of chitosan with organic, inorganic or with non-coating materials which includes gas fumigation, heat treatment and hypobaric treatment. It is used in various biomedical applications such as wound dressings, antibacterial coatings, tissue engineering scaffolds, drug delivery, stent coatings, biosensors and membrane seprations. Chitosan is a biopolymer which have different functional properties including enhacnced gelling properties, treatment of seafood industry effluent, drug compounds from aqua culture and sea food and nanocarrier abilities for bioactive compounds. Chitosan is also used for nasal formulations because of its efficient mucoadhesive properties including greater convenience, stability and long-term availability of drug in nasal cavity. Chitosan and its derivatives are used in nanocarriers for drug/ gene delivery or other healthcare purposes, due to their efficient hydrophilic properties.</p> Muhammad Jahangeer Sarmad Ahmad Qamar Zahed Mahmood Muhammad Asgher ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-24 2019-09-24 1 2 33 40 In-Silico Analysis of Grapevine Germin like Protein (VvGLP3) and its Probable Role in Defense Against Powdery Mildew Disease <p>Germin like proteins (GLPs) is a heterogeneous group of proteins that are part of Cupin superfamily. Various GLPs of Grapevine (VvGLP3) have been identified and characterized at molecular but not at the structural level. This study analyzes the structure of VvGLP3 to elucidate its role in defense against powdery mildew disease caused by <em>Erysiphe necator</em>. Physiochemical analysis through the high aliphatic index (AI), low instability index and grand average of hydropathy (GRAVY) reveal that VvGLP3 is heat stable hydrophobic protein. InterProScan was used to check the similarity of VvGLP3 to other GLPs and TMHMM indicates that VvGLP3 is a transmembrane protein. Secondary structure of VvGLP3 reveals that it consists of random coils followed by extended α-helix and β-trends and I-TASSER was employed to construct a 3-D structure of VvGLP3. A molecular docking approach was applied to study molecular interaction and binding pattern by Auto Dock Vina. I-TASSER and SOPMA were used to determine the functionally important residues and their role. In the present study, molecular docking binding affinity energy is from -1.5 to -1.3 of germin like protein with manganese (Mn<sup>+2</sup>) co-factor which depict its role in defense against powdery mildew disease.</p> Aqeel Ahmad Abubakar Ahmed Ramsha Essa Shanzay Baber Arooj Jamshed Almeera Shoukat Tasleem Younas Mushtaq A. Saleem Muhammad Naveed ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-24 2019-09-24 1 2 17 23 Isolation and partial characterization of antimicrobial proteins /peptides from Moringa oleifera <p><strong><em>Moringa oleifera</em></strong> is worldwide distributed plant because of its number of pharmacological and nutritional benefits. In this study, protein extracts of <strong><em>M. oleifera</em></strong> leaves and flowers were prepared. Extracts were purified by dialysis and quality of the sample was assessed through SDS-PAGE. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of these extracts was determined by using of disk diffusion method, Dpph (free radical scavenging assay) and enzymatic assay. The antimicrobial activity of <em>M. oleifera</em> protein extract of flowers and leaves were determined against multidrug – resistant bacteria e.g Methicillin-resistant <strong><em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> (MRSA)</strong>, <strong><em>Escherichia coli</em></strong> and <strong><em>Salmonella typhi</em></strong>. Extract results showed the maximum zone of inhibition against <strong>MRSA</strong> and minimum zone of inhibition against <strong><em>E. coli</em> </strong>and<strong> <em>S. typhi</em></strong> whereas protein extract of leaves did not show any antibacterial activity against these bacteria. MIC of flower extract was determined as 166ug/ml against <strong>MRSA </strong>whereas <strong><em>E. coli</em> </strong>and<strong> <em>S. typhi</em></strong> was recorded as 500ug/ml. enzymatic activity (peroxidase) result showed that leaf and flower protein extract possess higher enzymatic activity at time of 10 minutes and lower at time of 20 and 30 minutes. Protein extract of leaf showed higher scavenging activity at time of 40and 60 and lower at time of 20 whereas flower protein extract showed higher scavenging activity at time of 60 min and lower at time of 40 and 20. Present study showed that <strong><em>M. oleifera</em></strong> possess potent antimicrobial and antioxidant activity &amp; it may be used as potential drug against multidrug- resistant bacteria.&nbsp; &nbsp;</p> Anum Shakir Sadaf Riaz Muhammad Afzal, Mr. Basit Zeshan Salma Batool ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-24 2019-09-24 1 2 10 16 Editorial Issue 2 Volume 1 <p>Editorial for Issue 2 Volume 1 by Chief Editor LSJP</p> Mushtaq Saleem ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-24 2019-09-24 1 2 02 02 List of Contents Issue 2 Volume 1 <p><strong>List of Contents – Issue 2, Volume 1. 2019</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <table width="644"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="66"> <p><strong>S / NO.</strong></p> </td> <td width="454"> <p><strong>TITLE</strong></p> </td> <td width="124"> <p><strong>PAGE NO.</strong></p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="66"> <p><strong>1</strong></p> </td> <td width="454"> <p><strong>List of Contents – Issue 2, Volume 1. 2019</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> </td> <td width="124"> <p>1-1</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="66"> <p><strong>2</strong></p> </td> <td width="454"> <p><strong>Editorial – Issue 2, Volume 1. 2019</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> </td> <td width="124"> <p>2-2</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="66"> <p><strong>3</strong></p> </td> <td width="454"> <p><strong>Correlation of blaNDM to Antibiotic Resistance Patterns in <em>Klebsiella pneumoniae</em> Isolates from Tertiary Care Hospital in Lahore, Pakistan</strong></p> <p>Pakeeza Munir¹, Basit Zeshan¹ ⃰, Mushtaq Ahmad Saleem<sup>1</sup>, Majda Qureshi<sup>2</sup>, Sadaf Riaz<sup>1</sup>,</p> </td> <td width="124"> <p>3-9</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="66"> <p><strong>4</strong></p> </td> <td width="454"> <p><strong>Isolation and Partial Characterization of Antimicrobial Proteins /Peptides from <em>Moringa Oleifera</em></strong></p> <p>Anum Shakir<sup>1</sup>, Sadaf Riaz<sup>1</sup>*, Muhammad Afzal<sup>2</sup>, Basit Zeshan<sup>1</sup>, Salma Batool<sup>2</sup></p> </td> <td width="124"> <p>10-16</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="66"> <p><strong>5</strong></p> </td> <td width="454"> <p><strong>In-Silico Analysis of Grapevine Germin like Protein (VvGLP3) and its Probable Role in Defense against Powdery Mildew Disease</strong></p> <p>Aqeel Ahmad<sup>1</sup>, Abubakar Ahmed<sup>1</sup>, Ramsha Essa<sup>1</sup>, Shanzay Baber<sup>1</sup>, Arooj Jamshed<sup>1</sup>, Almeera Shoukat<sup>1</sup>, Tasleem Younas<sup>1</sup>, Mushtaq A. Saleem<sup>1</sup> and Muhammad Naveed<sup>1</sup>*</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> </td> <td width="124"> <p>17-23</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="66"> <p><strong>6</strong></p> </td> <td width="454"> <p><strong>Matricaria Chamomile Protective Effect Against Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus and Cancer Cell Linings</strong></p> <p>*Shahnai Basharat, <sup>1</sup>Syed Amir Gilani<sup>2 </sup>, Faiza Iftikhar <sup>3 </sup>, Muhammad Mustafa Qamar<sup>4 </sup>, Mian Anjum Murtaza, Sanabil Anmol<sup>6</sup> , Amna Imtiaz<sup>7</sup>, &nbsp;Sammana Ghazanfer<sup>8</sup>, Ameer Hamza<sup>9</sup>, Affifa Rajpoot<sup>10</sup></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> </td> <td width="124"> <p>24-32</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="66"> <p><strong>7</strong></p> </td> <td width="454"> <p><strong>Applications and Perspectives of Chitosan as Functional Biopolymer; An Extended Review </strong></p> <p>Muhammad Jahangeer<sup>1, </sup>Sarmad Ahmad Qamar<sup>2, </sup>*, Zahed Mahmood<sup>1</sup>, Muhammad Asgher<sup>2</sup></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> </td> <td width="124"> <p>33-40</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Muhammad Shaheen Iqbal ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-09-24 2019-09-24 1 2 01 01 Comparative Assessment of Biomedical and Nutritional Status of Dry Fruits; A Review <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; color: windowtext;">Nuts are nutrient rich foods that have high amount of unsaturated fatty acid and other compound likes protein, fiber, carbohydrate and antioxidants. Nuts have been proposed as an important component of optimal diets for reducing the risk of chronic heart diseases. Anti-inflammatory properties present in nuts, maintain the weight and increase insulin sensitivity. Other nutritional components that are also present in nuts such as vitamins, minerals and phenolic compounds. Phytosterols are also present in nuts that are reducing the absorption of cholesterol. The essential elements omega 3 and omega 6 are present in walnut and these elements are more favorable effect on hearth, brain and neurotransmitters<span style="background: white;">.</span> Polyunsaturated fatty acid basically linolenic acid and linoleic acid are also present in nuts.<span style="background: white;"> There are significant beneficial effects in human body that are reducing the low-density lipoproteins and improve the ratio of high-density lipoproteins and improve arterial function.</span> Monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid are present both in pine nuts and cashew nuts.<span style="background: white;"> Cashew nuts are increasing the anti-oxidant properties in human subject within metabolic disorders.</span> <span style="background: white;">Nuts are the great source of iron having beneficial effects for acute and chronic vascular reactivity. </span><em><span style="background: #FEFEFE;">Antioxidant properties in cashews work against the cardiac disorders and diabetes. </span></em></span></p> Muhammad Jahangeer Zahed Mahmood, Dr. Aqsa Mashooq, Mis Sarmad Ahmad Qamar, Mr. Ghazia Fatima, Mis Naveed Munir, Dr. Ayesha Zulfiqar, Miss Shoukat Hussain, Mr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-05 2019-05-05 1 2 24 33 Rabies virus: A mini review <p align="justify">Rabies is the disease caused by the rabies virus belong to the family of rhabdoviridae that is mostly transmitted by the bite of dog and show different dangerous symptoms like hydrophobias, malaise, irregular breathing and consequently death. It is bullet shaped virus with small RNA genome that encode five proteins that are responsible for the pathogenicity. G protein have main role in pathogenicity. It attack the central nervous system by using network of nerves cells, hijack it and starts transcribing itself. There is no cure for rabies but it will be avert by preventive measures. The vaccination of dogs are first step to prevent rabies virus.&nbsp;</p> Eman Ahmad Muhammad Shaheen Iqbal, Mr. Muhammad Qasim, Mr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-05 2019-05-05 1 2 40 43 Impact of school-based nutrition education intervention on consumption of fruits and vegetables among middle school children (age 7-10 years) <p>To evaluate the impact of school-based nutrition education intervention on the consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) among middle school children. It was a quantitative study. One-eighty students were selected via purposive sampling and divided into two groups, control (G1= 90) and intervention group (G2=90). The intervention consisted of nutrition education lectures related to the importance, benefits, and consumption of fruits and vegetables. The data collection instruments included knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Subjects were measured at baseline and at 2 months post-treatment. <strong>&nbsp;</strong>Before the intervention, no significant difference was observed between the intervention and control group regarding knowledge, attitude and practices related to fruits and vegetable consumption (P&gt;0.05). However, after the educational intervention, the mean score of knowledge (14.20±2.07), attitude (5.38±0.99) and practices (17.6±2.48) related to fruits and vegetables consumption were significantly higher in the intervention group when compared to the control group (P&gt;0.05). Consumption of fewer fruits and vegetables included: banana (87.8%), apple (82.2%), mango (77.8%), cucumber (63.3%), vegetable salad (55.6%) and potato (86.7%) were increased in the intervention group after nutrition education intervention. School-based nutrition education intervention on the consumption of fruits and vegetables is most likely to be effective to increase nutrition knowledge and modify attitude and practices of children related to fruits and vegetable consumption. Future researches should be conducted on school-based interventions with longer intervention periods and higher sustainability.</p> Faiza Iftikhar Amina Chughtai, Ms. Sanaullah Iqbal, Dr. Sajid Khan Tahir, Dr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-05 2019-05-05 1 2 10 18