Life Science Journal of Pakistan <p>Life Science Journal of Pakistan (LSJP) is an open-access peer-review journal that is published quarterly. Journal is free and there is no fee for processing or publishing of manuscripts. The journal publishes original articles, review articles, letters to editors, case reports, or short communications technical notes and perspectives. LSJP provides immediate open access to its content so that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge which is essential to promote research in the life science domain. The journal publishes contents related to the biology of living things. It may include subjects from biochemistry, microbiology, zoology, plant science, agriculture science, biotechnology, molecular biology, medical sciences, epidemiology, and food science. </p> Biology Publishers en-US Life Science Journal of Pakistan 2707-6687 Editorial Volume 3 Issue 1 <p>Life Science Journal of Pakistan (LSJP) is publishing its fourth issue and becoming popular among life science researchers who are sending their valuable manuscripts for publication. Although due to strict publication ethics and higher standard of acceptance we find it difficult to accept many even good research topics to be published.</p> <p>In this issue, four manuscripts will be published out of which three are original research articles and one is mini-review. One manuscript accepted for publication focused on frequency of drug-resistant <em>Mycobacterium Tuberculosis </em>in remote area of Tehsil Chiniot, Pakistan. Authors reported, high incidence rate of TB and a substantial number of RR-TB in males versus females. This article is unique as authors investigated over 6000 suspected individuals where 900 (14.7%) were diagnosed with TB (8.3% - males, 6.3% - females). Middle aged persons of 45-54 years showed highest resistant TB frequency (18.4%). The figures mentioned in this manuscript are alarming for health officials and demand urgent and special attention. Second manuscript accepted for publication was also of great importance as they carried out a survey depicting prevalence of a hygiene related disease scabies. They reported very high prevalence of scabies and concluded that low personal and environmental hygiene and personal direct or indirect contact with the infected persons and sharing of household accessories as means of scabies spread. This manuscript is worth reading to understand communicability of scabies in our local settings. Third article, accepted for publication in this issue, mentioned <em>in-silico</em> studies related to protein-protein interaction between collagen&nbsp;&nbsp; and peptide degrading protease, hypodermin C. Authors mentioned three important amino acids involved in docking and based on inhibitory studies they reported their role in protein degradation. This study revealed the characteristic structure of&nbsp; HyA and HyB of warble fly larvae, functionally evolved to proteolysis of skin collagen of its host, essential for parasitic activity, thereby possibility of developing vaccines against HyA and HyB antigens. Team LSJP is striving and supporting government agencies and healthcare workers, fighting against COVID-19, by continuously publishing pandemic related literature. A relevant review was included in this issue regrading current COVID-19 situation. This review encompassed meteorological parameters and established direct and indirect relationships between various climatic patterns, environmental factors including air quality index (AQI), humidity, temperature, wind speed and transmission of COVID-19. Authors also reviewed COVID-19 emergence, survival, stability, and transmission ratios due to environmental, meteorological and climatic factors. They recommended to improve the quality of life by reversing the necessary climatic and meteorological parameters.</p> <p>This journal will continue addressing scientific trends of life science related all disciplines mentioned in the scope of LSJP, for that we hope more and active participation of scholars from academia and R&amp;D institutes.&nbsp; Team LSJP made every effort to make the process of manuscript submission, review and publication very user friendly and convenient, for that we used a similar model as that of journals of repute. Efforts of LSJP team working tirelessly is highly acknowledged for their help and support for bringing LSJP at this level towards gaining excellence in life sciences publications.</p> Dr. Yasar Saleem Copyright (c) 2021 Life Science Journal of Pakistan 2021-04-03 2021-04-03 3 1 2 2 List of Contents Issue 1 Volume 3 <table width="717"> <tbody> <tr> <td width="54"> <p>S. No</p> </td> <td width="560"> <p>TITLE</p> </td> <td width="102"> <p>Page No.</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="54"> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> <td width="560"> <p>List of Contents</p> </td> <td width="102"> <p>1</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="54"> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> <td width="560"> <p>Editorial</p> </td> <td width="102"> <p>2</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="54"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>01</p> </td> <td rowspan="2" width="560"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Frequency of drug-resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Chiniot, Pakistan</strong></p> <p>Muhammad Daood Khan, Bilal Ahmad, Abid Hussain, Tahir Ishaq, Orangzaib Haider, Hafiz Ghulam Murtaza Saleem*</p> </td> <td width="102"> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="54"> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> <td width="102"> <p>03-09</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="54"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>02</p> </td> <td width="560"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Socio-demographic Patterns, Perceptions, Prevalence and Communicability of Scabies in Islamabad, Pakistan</strong></p> <p>Tallat Anwar Faridi*, Arif Munir, Sohaib Ali Hassan, Ishrat Perveen, Muhammad Saleem Rana</p> </td> <td width="102"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>10-17</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="54"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>03</p> </td> <td width="560"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Computational and Functional Analysis of Hypodermin C Protein against GWFI&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> <p>Fatima Tahir, Almeera Shoukat, Abubakar Ahmed, Amna Saleem, Hinza Asghar, <sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;</sup>&nbsp;<sup>&nbsp;&nbsp;</sup>Aqeel Ahmad*</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> <td width="102"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>18-28</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="54"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>04</p> </td> <td rowspan="2" width="560"> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS AND COVID-19 TRANSMISSION- A REVIEW&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Tabinda Razi, Sajida Naseem, Asma Naeem, Ishrat Perveen*, Tallat Anwar Faridi, Saba Sabahat , Hafiza Najma Naeem</p> </td> <td width="102"> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> </tr> <tr> <td width="54"> <p>&nbsp;</p> </td> <td width="102"> <p>29-37</p> </td> </tr> </tbody> </table> Muhammad Shaheen Iqbal Copyright (c) 2021 Life Science Journal of Pakistan 2021-04-03 2021-04-03 3 1 1 1 METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS AND COVID-19 TRANSMISSION- A REVIEW <p>The coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), emerged and identified by the end of the year 2019, has been found responsible for a series of lockdowns and a global medical emergency. Since then, several epidemiological studies have been conducted to identify and resolve the mysteries associated with the life-threatening viral strain (SARS-COV-2). The disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 is widely known as COVID-19. Researchers have well-established both the direct and indirect relationships between various climatic patterns, environmental and meteorological factors (<em>i.e. </em>air quality index (AQI), humidity, temperature, wind speed, etc.), and a surge in emergence, stability, and transmission of the COVID-19. The current review aims to dispense the relative variation in COVID-19 emergence, survival, stability, and transmission ratios due to the variant environmental, meteorological, and/or climatic factors.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Dr. Ishrat Perveen Copyright (c) 2021 Life Science Journal of Pakistan 2021-04-03 2021-04-03 3 1 28 37 Prevalence of drug resistant Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in Chiniot, Pakistan <p><strong>Introduction:</strong></p> <p>Tuberculosis is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among developing countries, and conditions are getting worse with the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains of <em>Mycobacterium tuberculosis </em>(MTB). Pakistan is trying to deal with TB but a substantial number of cases are still recorded every year.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong></p> <p>A cross sectional study was designed and sputum samples from the suspected individuals were tested for acid fast bacilli (AFB) and samples were further evaluated for the prevalence of rifampicin resistant MTB by Cepheid Xpert® MTB/Rif assay. The diagnosis of patients for TB prevalence was made on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms with the lab results.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong></p> <p>The present study enrolled 6110 suspected individuals, out of which 900 (14.7%) were diagnosed with TB and there 511(8.3%) were males and 389(6.3%) were females. The highest (18.4%) prevalence of TB cases was found in ages 45-54 (years) and considerably high (16.5%) TB frequency was observed in ages 15-24 (years). Study found statistically non-significant relationship (<em>p-value=</em>0.523) between gender and prevalence of MTB infection. Result indicated that 18 (0.3%) patients have been established with rifampicin resistant TB (RR-TB) and among those cases 13(0.21%) and 5(0.08%) were males and females respectively.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong></p> <p>A substantial number of TB cases and resistant TB cases were detected in current study from different areas of Chiniot, Pakistan<strong>. </strong>It has now become crucial to increase the awareness about TB from the perspective of general health concern of population so that the spread of infection could be reduced.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Tuberculosis, prevalence, antibiotics, rifampicin resistance</p> Hafiz Murtaza Copyright (c) 2021 Life Science Journal of Pakistan 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 3 1 03 09 Socio-demographic Patterns, Perceptions, Prevalence and Communicability of Scabies in Islamabad, Pakistan <p>Even though there is a high prevalence of scabies in various impoverished communities, no profound research work has been done so far on its contagiousness, communicability, and risk assessments in Islamabad, Pakistan. Scabies has been enlisted by the World Health Organization as the most neglected contagious tropical disease and its high prevalence in various underprivileged, impoverished and resource-poor communities, no profound research work has been done so far on its contagiousness, communicability, and risk assessments in Islamabad, Pakistan. The present study was aimed to explore the community perceptions, socio-demographic features, healthcare-seeking attitudes, and prevention practices that were contributing to the prevalence and communicability of scabies in a resource-deficient urban community of Islamabad, Pakistan. Data was collected through an orally-administered questionnaire through random sampling. The community responses were entered and analyzed in statistical package SPSS software version 21. The results have shown a high prevalence of scabies (57%) in the target slum community of Islamabad, Pakistan. More than half of the population were found living in congested household settings (61%), deficient in formal /informal education (57%), and were hardly making both ends to meet (59%) with their nominal monthly income (&lt; 6000 Pakistani rupees). It is hence concluded that a low level of community awareness and perception coupled with the socio-demographic features were found to be associated with the high prevalence and communicability of scabies.</p> Dr. Ishrat Perveen Copyright (c) 2021 Life Science Journal of Pakistan 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 3 1 08 15 Computational and Functional Analysis of Hypodermin C Protein against Goat Warble Fly Infestation <p>GWFI (Goat Warble Fly Infestation) is the myiasis caused by the larvae dipterous fly <em>Przhevalskiana silenus </em>in goats. This fly colonizes under the skin of an animal and increases its size at each larval stage. The larval gut produces the peptide degrading protein called hypodermin C (HyC). This study suggests that how collagen and HyC interact with each other. FASTA sequences of protein were retrieved from NCBI and the aligned sequences showed the highest similarity with serine proteases. The structure of HyC was modeled using I-TASSER online server followed by its validations using Procheck verification tool and physicochemical properties were confirmed by AA-prop. The protein structure of HyC was docked against Collagen by using their PDB IDs, 1HYL and 1BKV respectively. The structure of HyC showed a more determined hydrophobic nature and both structures were also superimposed to find out similarities and differences between them. Glutamic acid, Aspartic acid, Serine, and Lysine are found as interacting residues that are involved in docking with collagen. Generated structure of HyC that was docked against the collagen protein residues as the HyC produced from the gut of the fly binds with the collagen of the animal body and degrades the collagen, the residues which taken part in the binding process could be blocked which ultimately inhibits the binding of the hypodermin C and collagen thus these residues to control the infection. This present study helps in vaccine development against hypodermis, through inhibition of the binding of the collagen with hypodermin C is the strategy towards vaccine production.</p> Aqeel Ahmad Fatima Tahir Almeera Shoukat Ali Sher Muhammad Saif Ur Rahman Copyright (c) 2021 Life Science Journal of Pakistan 2021-03-31 2021-03-31 3 1 18 28