Life Science Journal of Pakistan <p align="justify">Life Science Journal of Pakistan (LSJP) is an open access peer review journal which is published bi-monthly. The journal publishes original articles, review articles, letters to editors, case reports or short communications technical notes and perspectives.&nbsp;LSJP&nbsp;provides immediate open access to its content so&nbsp;that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge which is essential to promote research in life science.&nbsp;Life Science Journal of Pakistan (LSJP) publishes contents related to biology of living things. It may include subjects from biochemistry, microbiology, zoology, plant science, agriculture science, biotechnology, molecular biology, medical sciences, epidemiology and food science.&nbsp;</p> Biology Publishers en-US Life Science Journal of Pakistan Comparative Assessment of Biomedical and Nutritional Status of Dry Fruits; A Review <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; color: windowtext;">Nuts are nutrient rich foods that have high amount of unsaturated fatty acid and other compound likes protein, fiber, carbohydrate and antioxidants. Nuts have been proposed as an important component of optimal diets for reducing the risk of chronic heart diseases. Anti-inflammatory properties present in nuts, maintain the weight and increase insulin sensitivity. Other nutritional components that are also present in nuts such as vitamins, minerals and phenolic compounds. Phytosterols are also present in nuts that are reducing the absorption of cholesterol. The essential elements omega 3 and omega 6 are present in walnut and these elements are more favorable effect on hearth, brain and neurotransmitters<span style="background: white;">.</span> Polyunsaturated fatty acid basically linolenic acid and linoleic acid are also present in nuts.<span style="background: white;"> There are significant beneficial effects in human body that are reducing the low-density lipoproteins and improve the ratio of high-density lipoproteins and improve arterial function.</span> Monounsaturated fatty acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid are present both in pine nuts and cashew nuts.<span style="background: white;"> Cashew nuts are increasing the anti-oxidant properties in human subject within metabolic disorders.</span> <span style="background: white;">Nuts are the great source of iron having beneficial effects for acute and chronic vascular reactivity. </span><em><span style="background: #FEFEFE;">Antioxidant properties in cashews work against the cardiac disorders and diabetes. </span></em></span></p> Muhammad Jahangeer Zahed Mahmood, Dr. Aqsa Mashooq, Mis Sarmad Ahmad Qamar, Mr. Ghazia Fatima, Mis Naveed Munir, Dr. Ayesha Zulfiqar, Miss Shoukat Hussain, Mr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-05 2019-05-05 1 1 24 33 Rabies virus: A mini review <p align="justify">Rabies is the disease caused by the rabies virus belong to the family of rhabdoviridae that is mostly transmitted by the bite of dog and show different dangerous symptoms like hydrophobias, malaise, irregular breathing and consequently death. It is bullet shaped virus with small RNA genome that encode five proteins that are responsible for the pathogenicity. G protein have main role in pathogenicity. It attack the central nervous system by using network of nerves cells, hijack it and starts transcribing itself. There is no cure for rabies but it will be avert by preventive measures. The vaccination of dogs are first step to prevent rabies virus.&nbsp;</p> Eman Ahmad Muhammad Shaheen Iqbal, Mr. Muhammad Qasim, Mr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-05 2019-05-05 1 1 40 43 Impact of school-based nutrition education intervention on consumption of fruits and vegetables among middle school children (age 7-10 years) <p>To evaluate the impact of school-based nutrition education intervention on the consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) among middle school children. It was a quantitative study. One-eighty students were selected via purposive sampling and divided into two groups, control (G1= 90) and intervention group (G2=90). The intervention consisted of nutrition education lectures related to the importance, benefits, and consumption of fruits and vegetables. The data collection instruments included knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Subjects were measured at baseline and at 2 months post-treatment. <strong>&nbsp;</strong>Before the intervention, no significant difference was observed between the intervention and control group regarding knowledge, attitude and practices related to fruits and vegetable consumption (P&gt;0.05). However, after the educational intervention, the mean score of knowledge (14.20±2.07), attitude (5.38±0.99) and practices (17.6±2.48) related to fruits and vegetables consumption were significantly higher in the intervention group when compared to the control group (P&gt;0.05). Consumption of fewer fruits and vegetables included: banana (87.8%), apple (82.2%), mango (77.8%), cucumber (63.3%), vegetable salad (55.6%) and potato (86.7%) were increased in the intervention group after nutrition education intervention. School-based nutrition education intervention on the consumption of fruits and vegetables is most likely to be effective to increase nutrition knowledge and modify attitude and practices of children related to fruits and vegetable consumption. Future researches should be conducted on school-based interventions with longer intervention periods and higher sustainability.</p> Faiza Iftikhar Amina Chughtai, Ms. Sanaullah Iqbal, Dr. Sajid Khan Tahir, Dr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-05 2019-05-05 1 1 10 18 Production and characterization of dextran from Leuconostoc mesenteroides NRRL B-512 (f) Fermentation <p>Dextran is a complex, branched glucose polymer carbohydrate with variable glycoside linkages and important with respect to food, clinical and medical point of view. Aim of current study is to produce dextran from <em>Leuconostoc</em><em> mesenteroides </em>NRRL B-512(f) fermentation by altering carbon sources in growth media, and comparatively analyze characteristics of resulted dextran samples and its related enzyme i.e dextransucrase. Desired strain was received from Dr. Shah Ali-ul-Qadar and confirmed by microscopic and biochemical tests after re-culturing. Dextran samples were produced by <em>L. mesenteroides </em>NRRL B-512(f )&nbsp; using sucrose, dextrose and fructose as carbon sources&nbsp; in&nbsp; fermentation jars under standard growth conditions. Samples were extracted and purified by treating with chilled ethanol repeatedly and characterized by analyzing physical properties, production yields, gelling properties, melting points and molecular weights. Molecular weights of samples were determined on FPLC apparatus manually. Dextransucrase (DS) is involved in dextran production in the presence of rich carbon source. Ds was extracted and purified by treating supernatants of samples with 25% pre chilled PEG400 leading to overnight incubation and then centrifugation purified protein samples were collected in the form of pellet and subjected to check enzyme activity in dextransucrase unit (DSU) and its molecular weight by SDS-PAGE analysis. Dextran can be produced by varying the substrates in fermenting media. But its properties alter by altering the substrate. This alteration may be effective in the context of its applications. Sucrose is the most valuable substrate for fermentation as it gives maximum yield.</p> Faqiha Munir, Ms. Yasar Saleem, Dr. Nabiha Munir Muhammad Shaheen Iqbal, Mr. Sania Sattar, Ms. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-05 2019-05-05 1 1 19 23 Biochemical Profile of Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) undergoing regular Hemodialysis <p align="justify">Kidneys play a vital role in the removal of metabolic waste products in the form of urine. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the decline in kidney function for more than 3 months. This study was designed to investigate comorbidities associated with CKD and to evaluate biochemical parameters of patients undergoing regular hemodialysis from different areas of Punjab. This is a population-based study, conducted at Tahir Heart Institute, Chenab-Nagar, Pakistan. In which 26 (15 males and 11 female) patients (mean age 56 ± 6 years) diagnosed with CKD stage-v and initiated dialysis in a regular manner. Their renal function tests, liver function tests, electrolytes, albumin, and vitamin-D were performed, and appropriate statistical analysis was done. Results showed that CKD affects more males than females. Hypertension is leading comorbidity with CKD around 46%, hypertension, and diabetes both 26.9%, diabetes 15.4%, cardiovascular diseases 7.69% and other 3.8%. Level of urea, creatinine, potassium, and phosphorus was higher in a patient with no significant gender difference. Iron and vitamin–D were deficient in all these patients and this deficiency was higher in female patients. Our findings provide comorbidities that leads towards kidney failure and an overview of routine biochemical parameters of CKD stage-v patients with gender differences.</p> Muhammad Jahangeer Bushra Munir, Dr. Muhammad Jahangeer Sarmad Ahmad Qamar Aneela Basharat Zahed Mahmood, Dr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-05 2019-05-05 1 1 3 9 Impact of nutrition education interventions on milk consumption among students (20-22 years) <p>The purpose of this study is to determine changes in nutrition knowledge, attitude, and practices of 20-22 years students after the nutrition education intervention. It was a pre-post-test study and we selected 153 students from three institutions of Lahore city. Eight nutrition education lectures were delivered to the students and the effectiveness of these lectures was evaluated by pre and post testing of students. The data collection instruments were KAP (knowledge, attitude, and practices) questionnaire and FFQ (food frequency questionnaire). First, post-testing was done after the nutrition education lectures. Second post-testing was done after two months to evaluate the retention span of nutrition education lectures on student’s knowledge, attitude, and practices. Data was analyzed by SPSS version 20.0. The mean score of correct answers of KAP (knowledge, attitude, and practices) questionnaire was (6.75± 2.26) at pre-test and mean score of correct answers of first post testing was (23.81±2.49) and the mean score after second post testing was (23.79±2.58). Results indicated that there was a significant increase (P&gt;0.05) in KAP (knowledge, attitude, and practices) of students after nutrition intervention. While the results of two post testing showed that there was no significant difference (p=0.732) in overall KAP score of participants. Results of food frequency tables showed that consumption of fresh milk and milkshake was increased after nutrition education intervention. In conclusion, the study showed that nutrition education interventions were effective in improving the KAP of students regarding milk consumption patterns. It is hoped that improvements would be sustained throughout their lives.</p> Fakeeha maryam Amina Chughtai, Ms. Sanaullah Iqbal, Dr. Sajid Khan Tahir, Dr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-05-05 2019-05-05 1 1 34 39